At home, President Buhari faces multiple security challenges, including the nine-year-old insurgency by Boko Haram jihadists in the north-east, and mounting insecurity in the middle belt.
The White House has sold 12 counter insurgency aircraft worth $496m (£360m) to Nigeria to help in its fight against Boko Haram.
In Washington, Mr Trump and Mr Buhari will also discuss ways to deepen economic cooperation between both their countries.
Mr Buhari, who is seeking re-election in 2019, is also expected to stress that he is committed to democracy despite rampant corruption and poor governance in the west African country.
After the talks, the Nigeria leader is due to meet businesses specialising in agriculture.
Senior Nigerian government officials will also discuss a number of projects with executives from major US transport companies.